You don’t have to be a US citizen to be eligible for and receive Social Security disability benefits. Even non-US citizens may qualify for benefits.
If you are a permanent resident, but a non-citizen, you may be eligible for Social Security disability benefits, because you have paid taxes into the Social Security system for the minimum number of years required to be eligible for benefits. Furthermore, if you are a non-citizen, but have served as an active member of the US military or are a veteran, you may also qualify for benefits.
Even if you are not a permanent resident, you may still continue to be eligible for benefits. Foreigners who are working inside the United States may qualify as long as they pay Social Security taxes. If you are a foreign student studying in the United States, however, you may not be eligible for benefits. Additionally, if you are in the United States on an exchange program, you may not be eligible for benefits because you are exempted from paying taxes into the Social Security system.